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Declassified documents show that Hyde had contacts with the CIA, which at least considered him for use in an operation in Vietnam.

Young , who was a member of Andrija Puharich 's Roundtable Foundation. While most names in the movie JFK were not changed, the Paines were renamed to avoid potential legal action.

Lee Harvey Oswald , in which the role was played by Quenby Bakke. Following is a terse summary of Ruth Paine's long testimony to the Warren Commission about events after June , as Ruth continued writing to Marina Oswald with the goal of Marina having her baby at Parkland Hospital, through the success of that goal, and then to November 22nd, when JFK was assassinated.

Ruth continued writing to Marina during the summer. Ruth still has all of Marina's letters. Marina was distressed. Ruth began her long summer vacation back East, staying with friends and family.

Ruth's letters continually encouraged Marina to live with her during Marina's upcoming childbirth. Marina needed proper medical care as offered by programs like those at Parkland Hospital in Dallas.

In July Marina replied that all of that must depend on a formal divorce. Ruth also telephoned Church ladies in New Orleans to find Russian contacts to provide Marina with Russian-speaking friends.

The Quakers had none. The Unitarians found a partly Russian-speaking mother, Ruth Kloepfer and her two daughters, who agreed to visit Marina.

That was nice. Marina was about six months pregnant and LHO had no job! This was Ruth's opportunity. In her plans to drive with her children back to Texas in September, Ruth offered to stop by New Orleans to talk about moving Marina not LHO to her house for the birth of the new baby.

LHO invited Ruth to stay for the weekend, and he was an attentive host. Ruth called Mrs. Kloepfer and her two college-age daughters to visit.

One of her daughters had been studying Russian and brought slides of her recent trip to Russia. LHO politely remarked about each slide. LHO made a much better impression on Ruth that weekend than ever before.

Ruth was delighted with LHO's approval. This made all the difference to Ruth. LHO did most of the packing and all of the car loading on Sunday night, as Marina and Ruth would take the babies on long walks or to wash diapers at the local laundromat.

It was a very well loaded automobile because Ruth already had many things of her own, including a boat on the car-top and they also had a playpen on top.

They left on Monday the 23rd. LHO sadly watched them leave, yet he gave Ruth no money for this trip or ever nor any to Marina for this trip. Here is part of a letter that Ruth wrote to her mother, dated 30 September ; the second paragraph.

Even grateful; he has been out of work since August. I feel now that Lee wants to keep his family together and will send for them as soon as possible I told them both of my expectation that you would be here February to June.

In other words, Ruth planned for her own mother to come to live with her in Irving starting in February, , and so Marina should be ready to move out by then.

Ruth hoped that LHO would have a job by then. From Tuesday, September 24th through Thursday, October 3rd, Marina, baby June, Ruth and her children enjoyed 10 days of peace and quiet.

They received no word from LHO, by telephone or letter. Marina had no visitors and no social contacts beyond Ruth and Ruth's neighbors.

Ruth quickly handed Marina the phone and Marina asked why he had never called. LHO asked to come to visit for the weekend. Marina asked Ruth and Ruth approved.

Ruth left to buy groceries and expected LHO to arrive by bus around suppertime. Yet when Ruth returned an hour later, LHO was already there.

He explained that he'd hitchhiked. LHO said his day search for work in Houston had failed, and he would now try Dallas.

He said nothing about Mexico City. Warren Commission CE appears to be that same map. The YMCA was too expensive, so he went looking for a room.

He gave no address. Ruth wrote a letter, CE, to her mother dated Monday, October 14th. Ruth said she gave LHO a driving lesson:.

If LHO can just find work that will help so much. Meantime I started giving him driving lessons last Sunday yesterday.

If he can drive, this will open up more job possibilities and more locations He spent last weekend and the one before with us here and was a happy addition to our expanded family.

From a poor first impression I have come to like him Ruth had no clue that LHO was keeping a rifle in her garage.

She was certain that it was never in the Oswald belongings that Ruth had personally unloaded from New Orleans. Ruth was stunned when she learned that Marina had known about it.

On October 14th, Marina and Ruth shared coffee with the next door neighbors, Mrs. Roberts and two other mothers, including Linnie Mae Randle.

Ruth translated for Marina. Once connected, Ruth told him that she knew a young man, a former Marine named Lee Oswald whose wife was staying in her house, with one child and expecting a baby, and he needed a job.

Truly said that he should apply in person. Marina should be here until she has rested some from childbirth.

During Sunday evening, October 20th, Marina began labor, and LHO stayed at Ruth's to care for all the sleeping toddlers while Ruth drove Marina to the hospital in her station wagon around 9pm.

Parkland accepted Marina and sent Ruth home. A few hours later Ruth called the hospital, and they said that Marina had a baby girl.

LHO was asleep, so Ruth decided to tell him in the morning. LHO went to work normally that Monday, but that evening he arrived again in Irving, driven by Frazier.

Ruth encouraged LHO to go to the hospital; Ruth was not admitted. Marina and baby Rachel were now home -- everybody was together again.

Starting mid-afternoon on Friday, November 1st, bad luck arrived. This was nap-time so Ruth started out alone with the FBI. Hosty had spoken last week with her immediate neighbor, Mrs.

Roberts, who confirmed that a Russian lady was living with Ruth. Yes, Ruth said, but not LHO. The FBI assured her that they never contact the employer in routine inquiries.

Ruth translated as Hosty reassured Marina that he was only there to greet her, and not to question her, and that he wanted Marina to rest after having her baby.

Then he left. LHO frowned but he said nothing else about it. Then Hosty asked if Ruth thought Oswald was a mental case, and Ruth said no; even though he was a Marxist, which is illogical, he could still function in society.

Hosty scoffed and left. While doing dishes that night, Ruth told Marina what happened, and Marina raied her voice -- the Oswald address was the Oswald's business!

Ruth still believed that the FBI had easy access to any address they desired, so she thought little of it.

The DMV was closed because of the holiday. LHO returned to his draft. He worked on it all weekend, and he left the draft on the desk through the Sunday evening.

On early Monday morning, since the draft was still there, Ruth glanced at it which is now CE LHO was writing fibs on her typewriter! So, Ruth read the whole thing.

Here is the entire document:. I was unable to remain in Mexico City indefinitely because of my Mexican visa restriction which was for 15 days only.

I could not take a chance on applying for an extension unless I used my real name so I returned to the U. I and Marina Nicholyeva are now living in Dallas, Texas.

Of course I and my wife strongly protested these tactics by the notorious FBI. I had not planned to contact the Mexico City Embassy at all so of course they were unprepared for me.

Had I been able to reach Havana as planned, the Soviet Embassy would have had time to assist me, but of course the stupid Cuban consul was at fault here.

I am glad he has since been replaced by another. Ruth regarded the Mexico City story as nothing but fiction. Ruth decided to make a handwritten copy of this letter to give to the FBI Agent the next time he called.

Then Ruth carefully placed the letter back, precisely where it had been. Once again, Ruth felt justified in regarding LHO with some suspicion.

Marina told LHO not to come that weekend so that Ruth could have a birthday party for her daughter. It didn't occur to Ruth that lying to his wife was an FBI matter.

The following day, Tuesday, November the 19th, LHO called and complained to Marina for calling him at his rooming house!

He had turned it back on her! Marina slammed down the phone. On Wednesday the 20th, LHO did not call at the usual time. This was the first time that LHO had ever appeared at her house without asking.

Ruth parked her car in the driveway as usual and LHO helped her with the groceries. Ruth briefly greeted him, and he walked in first, while Marina privately apologized for his having come without asking.

Ruth went out to the garage to paint some crafts, and she noticed that the light was on in her garage. That was strange for her house.

Ruth believed that LHO had been out there since Marina had also been busy with her own children. Ruth thought it was careless of LHO to leave the light on, but Ruth finished her work and then turned off the light and left the garage.

Ruth never saw him make a sandwich to take to work with him. Ruth remembered one time when Marina made something for him to take, but not this day.

When Marina got up Marina said absolutely nothing about anything unusual. She had nursed the baby in the morning as LHO got ready, but went back to sleep after that.

Ruth fixed breakfast for her own children, turned on the TV to hear JFK speak in Fort Worth and then left about 9 AM with her children for a dentist appointment and some errands.

Ruth left the TV on for Marina. Ruth lit some candles with baby Lynn. An hour later, they heard confirmation that JFK was dead. The announcer said the shot came from the TSBD.

Marina was outside hanging clothes, and Ruth went outside to tell her. They stood there, looking at each other. As they watched, the TV news reported that somebody had been arrested at a movie theater.

Suddenly, the doorbell rang and she saw six police and deputy officers at her door. Ruth thinks that this was just after 3pm, because they had put their children down for their naps.

He is charged with shooting an officer. Now Ruth realized that they were in real trouble. Still, they spread out and searched every room in her house.

From the garage, one officer asked her if LHO had any guns, and Ruth honestly answered, no! Ruth translated the question to Marina, however, and Marina answered, yes!

Ruth was stunned. Marina said she had seen part of a gun inside a blanket roll on the floor, and Marina pointed to the blanket.

Ruth translated this to the officers, and they picked up that blanket and it flopped over. Marina blanched — and Marina was good at hiding her feelings.

This was bad. First the TSBD, and now a missing rifle. The police then insisted that Ruth and Marina come downtown to make official statements.

By that time, Michael appeared at Ruth's door, thinking that she might need support, and he was right -- but the officers wanted him to come downtown as well.

Ruth had to quickly find a babysitter for her children as officers hauled several boxes from her garage and house to their cars. Then Michael, Ruth, Marina and baby June went downtown with the police.

They had never seen her before. Marina and Marguerite Oswald hugged and wept. Grandmother cooed over the new baby, whom she had never seen before.

Michael and Ruth had never seen him before, either. Marina had all of her belongings at Ruth's house. This was about 9 PM.

Basically, Ruth never reestablished a relationship with Marina again, despite her many efforts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Washington, D. Paine's Garage and the Murder of John F. December 22, Retrieved January 3, Retrieved 14 September Kennedy Assassination Home Page.

John C. Retrieved 16 September Potomac Books, Inc. The Death of a President. Anchor Books. Kurtz The JFK assassination debates: lone gunman versus conspiracy.

University Press of Kansas. Retrieved 20 September Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U. House of Representatives.

JFK and the Unspeakable. Why he died and why it matters. Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, , p. Retrieved The New York Times.

Allen Dulles: Master of Spies. Hartmann was charged with war crimes, specifically the "deliberate shooting of Soviet civilians" in the village of Briansk , attacking a bread factory on 23 May , and destroying "expensive" Soviet aircraft.

Sentenced to 25 years of hard labour , [75] he refused to work, and was put into solitary confinement, which led to a riot by some of his fellow detainees, who overpowered the guards, and temporarily freed him.

He made a complaint to the Kommandant ' s office, asking for a representative from Moscow and an international inspection, as well as a new trial hearing to overturn his sentence.

This was refused, and he was transferred to a camp in Novocherkassk , where he spent five more months in solitary confinement.

He was later put before a new tribunal, which upheld the original sentence. He was subsequently sent to another camp, this time at Diaterka in the Ural Mountains.

In January , more than three years after his death, Hartmann's case was reviewed by the Chief Military Prosecutor in Moscow of the Russian Federation, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union , and he was acquitted of all historical charges against him in Russian Law.

The government agency stated that he had been wrongly convicted. During his long imprisonment, Hartmann's son, Erich-Peter, was born in and died as a three-year-old in , without his father ever having seen him.

Hartmann later had a daughter, Ursula Isabel, born on 23 February When Hartmann returned to West Germany, he reentered military service in the Bundeswehr and became an officer in the West German Air Force , where he commanded West Germany's first all-jet unit from 6 June to 29 May , Jagdgeschwader 71 "Richthofen".

Hartmann also made several trips to the United States, where he was trained on U. Air Force equipment.

Hartmann and the former Luftwaffe pilots needed only familiarisation training. Hartmann considered the F a fundamentally flawed and unsafe aircraft and strongly opposed its adoption by the air force.

From —74, Hartmann worked as a flight instructor in Hangelar, near Bonn , and also flew in fly-ins with other wartime pilots.

Hartmann died on 20 September , at the age of 71 in Weil im Schönbuch. Hartmann was the subject of a biography by the American authors Trevor J.

Constable and Raymond F. Toliver, under the title The Blond Knight of Germany. Originally released in the United States in , it was published in Germany the next year, as Holt Hartmann vom Himmel!

The Blond Knight was a commercial success and enjoyed a wide readership among both the American and the German public.

The book has been criticised by some as ahistorical and misleading in recent American and German historiography. Ronald Smelser and Edward J.

Davies , in their work The Myth of the Eastern Front , describe it as one of the key works that promoted the myth of the "clean Wehrmacht".

The historian Jens Wehner notes that the German-language version of the book was immensely popular in Germany, but contained serious flaws in its presentation of historical realities.

These included uncritical borrowing from the Nazi propaganda elements of the Fliegerasse " aces " and stereotypes about the Soviet Union.

According to Wehner, the latter could be traced to the prevailing attitudes during the Cold War. Further, the political and social consequences of World War II were completely ignored.

Matthews and Foreman, authors of Luftwaffe Aces — Biographies and Victory Claims , researched the German Federal Archives and found records for aerial victory claims, plus two further unconfirmed claims.

This and the — dash indicates unconfirmed aerial victory claims for which Hartmann did not receive credit.

This and the? This and the! Hartmann had kept the whereabouts of his Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross secret from his captors during his time as a prisoner of war, claiming that he had thrown it away.

The hiding place was in a small stream. His comrade Hans "Assi" Hahn managed to hide the Knight's Cross in a double bottom cigar box and smuggled it back to Germany when he was released from captivity.

Hartmann joined the military service in Wehrmacht on 1 October His first station was Neukuhren in East Prussia , where he received his military basic training as a Luftwaffe recruit.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the photographer, see Erich Hartmann photographer. See battles. He is a very good flyer, certainly, but not a virtuoso like Hans-Joachim Marseille, who was killed after aerial victories in North Africa and is regarded as an unrivaled marksman by his friends and foes.

Hartmann is not an intelligent tactical innovator like Werner Mölders. It seems to me that he controls his flying talent, his good eyesight and his aggressiveness with an extremely cool mind as soon as he engages the enemy.

He does not risk too much, but attacks his opponents from a superior position, mostly from behind, shoots from close range and immediately disengages.

Main article: The Blond Knight of Germany. Toliver and Constable give the impression that eight kills are probable, while other sources speak of seven victories.

Hartmann himself, in a document dated 16 May , used the rank Hauptmann. Bergström, Christer Kursk - The Air Battle: July Burgess Hill: Classic Publications.

Identifying a Luftwaffe Planquadrat. Retrieved 6 February Braatz, Kurt Moosburg, Germany: NeunundzwanzigSechs Verlag.

The Air Fighters. Harrisburg: National Historical Society. Boyne, Walter J. Air War's Top Ace. Stamford, Connecticut: Cowles Enthusiast Media.

Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. German Fighter Ace Erich Hartmann. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing.

Walton on Thames: Red Kite. Die populäre und populärwissenschaftliche Darstellung der Wehrmacht" [So was the German Landser : The popular culture and popular history representation of the Wehrmacht].

H-Soz-Kult in German. Retrieved 12 March H-Soz-Kult Obermaier, Ernst Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann.

Air University Press. Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. Eutin, Germany: Buchverlag Rogge. Braatz, Kurt ed.

Die Luftwaffe in German. Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. New York: Cambridge University Press. Maryland: Naval Institute Press.

Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. Steve; Smith, Peter C Flight Journal.

Bonn, Germany: Historisches Forschungszentrum. Bf Aces of the Russian Front. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.

Germany at War: Years of Military History. London: ABC-Clio. Der Spiegel in German Retrieved 18 June Bundeswehr in German. Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 17 February Articles and topics related to Erich Hartmann.

Werner Mölders. Erich Hartmann Gerhard Barkhorn Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Major Wehrmacht Oberst Bundeswehr. Civilian flight instructor.

PQ [93]. PQ 35 Ost [94]. PQ [95]. PQ 35 Ost [94] vicinity of Shanlykino. PQ 34 Ost [96] northeast of Tikhovskiy. PQ 34 Ost [96] northeast of Ivanovskaja.

PQ 34 Ost [96] vicinity of Slavyansk-na-Kubani. PQ 34 Ost , east of Krymsk [96] vicinity of Usun. PQ 34 Ost , east of Krymsk [96] north Mertschanskaja.

PQ 34 Ost [97] northeast of Tikhovskiy. PQ 34 Ost [97] Sswobodnyj. PQ 34 Ost [98] north of Mertschanskaja. PQ 34 Ost [98] east of Sorin.

PQ 34 Ost [] south of Krymsk. PQ 34 Ost , southwest of Abinsk [] vicinity of Usun. PQ 34 Ost [] vicinity of Krymsk. PQ 34 Ost [] vicinity of Abinsk.

PQ 34 Ost [] west of Krasnoarmeysky. PQ 34 Ost [] east of Severskaya. Il-2 m. IL-2 m. PQ 35 Ost [99] vicinity of Orlowka. PQ 35 Ost [] Bogatoje.

PQ 35 Ost [] Krasny-Liman. PQ 35 Ost [] vicinity of Krasny-Liman. PQ 35 Ost [] southwest of Prokhorovka. PQ 35 Ost []. PQ 35 Ost [] southwest of Bolkhov.

PQ 35 Ost [] west of Bolkhov. PQ 35 Ost [] west of Zubkovo. PQ 35 Ost [94] vicinity of Telchje. PQ 34 Ost [] east Marinowka. PQ 35 Ost [94] west of Bolkhov.

PQ 34 Ost [] vicinity of Vasylivka. PQ 34 Ost [] southeast of Vasylivka. PQ 34 Ost ? PQ 34 Ost [] northeast of Zaporizhzhia. PQ 34 Ost [] vicinity of Piatykhatky.

PQ 34 Ost , Gadkij [] vicinity of Vasylivka. PQ 34 Ost [] vicinity of Nowa Praha. Yak-9 []. Leutnant second lieutenant [].

Oberleutnant first lieutenant [].

He then ran for cover in low cloud, and his mission subsequently ended with a crash landing after his aircraft ran out of fuel. Hartmann had violated almost every rule of air-to-air combat, and von Bonin sentenced him to three days of working with the ground crew.

Twenty-two days later, Hartmann claimed his first victory, an Ilyushin Il-2 Sturmovik of the 7th Guards Ground Attack Aviation Regiment, but by the end of , he had added only one more victory to his tally.

As with many high-claiming aces, it took him some time to establish himself as a consistently successful fighter pilot.

Hartmann's youthful appearance earned him the nickname "Bubi" the hypocoristic form of "young boy" in the German language , [1] and Walter Krupinski , to whom Hartmann was assigned as wingman, would constantly urge him: "Hey, Bubi, get in closer" or chastise him with "What was that, Bubi?

In Krupinski's absence, from the third week of May to the first week of August, Hartmann's number of claims rose from 17 to On 5 July Hartmann claimed four victories during the large dogfights that took place during the Battle of Kursk.

The day ended badly when Hartmann was unable to prevent Krupinski from being shot down and wounded over Ugrim airfield.

Hartmann remarked; "the departure of Krupinski was a severe strike against the Staffel , and particularly against me. During Krupinski's convalescence, Hartmann served as temporary Staffelkapitän squadron leader of 7.

Staffel until 12 August. On 8 and 9 July he claimed four on each day. On the former date, Hartmann claimed two aircraft on each mission he flew.

In the first, Soviet records show at least one La-5 was lost. Major Tokarev of the 40 IAP was killed. A Soviet after-battle analysis mentioned this specific engagement;.

Paying no attention to the enemy aircraft our fighters continued. Seizing a convenient moment, the German fighters attacked our aircraft and shot down three Yak-1s.

At the start of August , his tally stood at 42, but Hartmann's tally had more than doubled by the end.

On 1 August Hartmann became an ace-in-a day by claiming five victories. Another four followed on 3 August and five on 4 August. Another five were claimed destroyed on 5 August, a single on 6 August, and a further five on 7 August.

On 8 and 9 August he claimed another four Soviet fighters. Hartmann's last claim of the month came on the 20th, when he accounted for an IL-2 for his 90th victory.

In his first year of operational service, Hartmann felt a distinct lack of respect towards Soviet pilots. Most Soviet fighters did not even have effective gunsights and their pilots, some cases in the early weeks, were forced to draw one on the windscreen by hand: "In the early days, incredible as it may seem, there was no reason for you to feel fear if the Russian fighter was behind you.

With their hand-painted gunsights they couldn't pull the lead properly deflection shooting or hit you.

Hartmann said the German pilots themselves still learned from their enemy. A captured Soviet airman showed them how pouring fuel into the aircraft's oil sump would thaw the oil and enable the engine to start on the first try.

Another solution, also learned from the Soviets, was to ignite fuel under the engine. In contrast to Hans-Joachim Marseille , who was a marksman and expert in the art of deflection shooting , Hartmann was a master of stalk-and-ambush tactics, preferring to ambush and fire at close range rather than dogfight.

When the decorated British test pilot Captain Eric Brown asked Hartmann how he had accomplished his total, Hartmann remarked, that along with firing at close range, inadequate Soviet defensive armament and manoeuvre tactics allowed him to claim a victim in every attack.

This technique, as opposed to long-range shooting, allowed him to: [34]. Günther Rall. Hartmann's guidance amplified the need to detect while remaining undetected.

His approach was described by himself by the motto: "See—Decide—Attack—Reverse"; observe the enemy, decide how to proceed with the attack, make the attack, and then disengage to re-evaluate the situation.

Another attack could be executed if the pilot could re-enter the combat zone with the advantage. If attacked in-kind Hartmann flew straight and used the rudder [yaw] to point the Bf in a slightly different direction to mislead the attacker in the amount of deflection needed.

Hartmann then forced the column into the corner of the cockpit beginning the outside rotation of an oblique loop. It was an emergency measure if ambushed and it saved his life several times.

These tactics inflated Hartmann's successes over the summer of By 7 July he had claimed 21 Soviet aircraft destroyed and by 20 September he had claimed over The demands on fighter pilots increased after Kursk.

In early August Hartmann flew 20 missions totalling 18 hours and 29 minutes in six days. Hartmann claimed two enemy aircraft before his fighter was hit by debris and he was forced to make an emergency landing.

In accordance with regulations, he attempted to recover the precision board clock. As he was doing so, Soviet soldiers approached.

Realising that capture was unavoidable, he faked internal injuries. Hartmann's acting so convinced the Soviets that they put him on a stretcher and placed him on a truck.

Lieutenant P. He was the 54th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark. In October , Hartmann claimed another 33 aerial victories.

By the end of the year, this had risen to In the first two months of , Hartmann claimed over 50 Soviet aircraft.

By this time, the Soviet pilots were familiar with Hartmann's radio call sign of Karaya 1 , and the Soviet Command had put a price of 10, rubles on the German pilot's head.

As a result, this aircraft was often allocated to novices, who could fly it in relative safety. Hartmann then had the tulip design removed, and his aircraft painted just like the rest of his unit.

Consequently, in the following two months, Hartmann claimed over 50 victories. According to Hartmann, all four of them got drunk on cognac and champagne.

On arrival at Berchtesgarden, Hartmann was reprimanded by Hitler's adjutant for intoxication and for handling Hitler's hat. In April and May , 9.

In April Hartmann claimed five victories. In May, Hartmann filed claims number to which included six on 6 May.

Only one other claim against this type was made by Hartmann in Later that month, Ps ran his Messerschmitt out of fuel. During the intense manoeuvring, Hartmann ran out of ammunition.

Robert J. Goebel of the th Squadron, 31st Fighter Group , broke away and headed straight for Hartmann while he hung in his parachute.

Hartmann was asked to surrender his side arm — a security measure heightened by the aftermath of the failed assassination attempt on 20 July According to one account, Hartmann refused and threatened to decline the Diamonds if he were not trusted to carry his pistol.

Allegedly, Hitler admitted to Hartmann that he believed that, "militarily, the war is lost," and that he wished the Luftwaffe had "more like him and Rudel.

The Diamonds to the Knight's Cross also earned Hartmann a day leave. On his way to his vacation, he was ordered by General der Jagdflieger Adolf Galland to attend a meeting in Berlin-Gatow.

Galland wanted to transfer Hartmann to the Messerschmitt Me test program but, at Hartmann's request, the transfer was cancelled on the grounds of his professed attachment to JG Witnesses to the wedding included his friends Gerhard Barkhorn and Wilhelm Batz.

From 1—14 February , Hartmann briefly led I. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 53 as acting Gruppenkommandeur until he was replaced by Helmut Lipfert.

Hartmann attended the jet conversion program led by Heinrich Bär. Galland also intended Hartmann to fly with Jagdverband Some sources report that Hartmann's decision to stay with his unit was due to a request via telegram made by Oberstleutnant Hermann Graf.

Now Gruppenkommandeur of I. The last wartime photograph of Hartmann known was taken in connection with this victory.

Early that morning, he was ordered to fly a reconnaissance mission and report the position of Soviet forces.

Hartmann took off with his wingman at and spotted the first Soviet units just 40 kilometres 25 miles away. As Gruppenkommandeur of I.

After his capture, the U. Army handed Hartmann, his pilots, and ground crew over to the Soviet Union on 14 May, where he was imprisoned in accordance with the Yalta Agreements , which stated that airmen and soldiers fighting Soviet forces had to surrender directly to them.

Hartmann and his unit were led by the Americans to a large open-air compound to await the transfer. In Hartmann's account, the Soviets attempted to convince him to cooperate with them.

He was asked to spy on fellow officers, but refused and was given ten days' solitary confinement in a four-by-nine-by-six-foot chamber. He slept on a concrete floor and was given only bread and water.

On another occasion, according to Hartmann, the Soviets threatened to kidnap and murder his wife the death of his son was kept from Hartmann.

During similar interrogations about his knowledge of the Me , Hartmann was struck by a Soviet officer using a cane, prompting Hartmann to hit the assailant with a chair, knocking him out.

Expecting to be shot, he was transferred back to the small bunker. Hartmann, not ashamed of his war service, opted to go on a hunger strike and starve rather than fold to "Soviet will", as he called it.

More subtle efforts by the Soviet authorities to convert Hartmann to communism also failed. J is for Keep Fit. L is for M is for Moderne Wagen.

Movie Heroes. Movie Logos. Movie Logos 2. Movie Puzzles. Movie Quotes. Movie Sets. N is for North America.

O is for Auf der Farm. P is for Q is in Reality TV Stars. Secret Agent. Song Puzzles. Sports Logos. Sports Stars. VIP Kinderfotos. TV Shows.

TV Shows 2. TV Stars. Among the letters that Ruth Paine repeatedly sent to Marina was a thick book of household advice in Russian.

The book contained an undated note left by Lee for Marina on April 10, the day of the Walker assassination attempt which Marina would later testify she had concealed.

Ruth Paine testified before the Warren Commission and has been interviewed by a number of authors, including Johnson, William Manchester and Gerald Posner.

She has appeared in numerous documentaries and even a mock trial of Lee Harvey Oswald. She also testified in Jim Garrison 's trial of Clay Shaw.

Paine was not called to testify before the House Select Committee on Assassinations. They thought Paine sought attention for herself, an opinion Marina would later express before the Warren Commission.

Ruth wrote to Marina incessantly, with letters that took an almost desperate tone, but received no response except for a Christmas card.

They met briefly in but afterwards they would never see each other again. She soon moved to St. Petersburg, Florida and earned a master's degree in psychology from the University of South Florida.

After working for the school system in Franklin County in the Florida Panhandle , she returned to St.

Petersburg and worked for the Hillsborough County, Florida school system until her retirement. She is active in Quaker and liberal charities and organizations and lives in Santa Rosa, California.

The City of Irving bought the former Paine home in and has been restoring it to its condition to be turned into a museum in time for the 50th anniversary of the Kennedy assassination on November 22, Conspiracy theorists have attempted to connect the Paines to various conspiracies going back generations, since both Ruth and Michael Paine's relatives and ancestors held important government and business positions.

Ruth visited and stayed with her sister in September Ruth admits that her sister may have worked for "an outfit.

Declassified documents show that Hyde had contacts with the CIA, which at least considered him for use in an operation in Vietnam.

Young , who was a member of Andrija Puharich 's Roundtable Foundation. While most names in the movie JFK were not changed, the Paines were renamed to avoid potential legal action.

Lee Harvey Oswald , in which the role was played by Quenby Bakke. Following is a terse summary of Ruth Paine's long testimony to the Warren Commission about events after June , as Ruth continued writing to Marina Oswald with the goal of Marina having her baby at Parkland Hospital, through the success of that goal, and then to November 22nd, when JFK was assassinated.

Ruth continued writing to Marina during the summer. Ruth still has all of Marina's letters. Marina was distressed.

Ruth began her long summer vacation back East, staying with friends and family. Ruth's letters continually encouraged Marina to live with her during Marina's upcoming childbirth.

Marina needed proper medical care as offered by programs like those at Parkland Hospital in Dallas. In July Marina replied that all of that must depend on a formal divorce.

Ruth also telephoned Church ladies in New Orleans to find Russian contacts to provide Marina with Russian-speaking friends.

The Quakers had none. The Unitarians found a partly Russian-speaking mother, Ruth Kloepfer and her two daughters, who agreed to visit Marina.

That was nice. Marina was about six months pregnant and LHO had no job! This was Ruth's opportunity. In her plans to drive with her children back to Texas in September, Ruth offered to stop by New Orleans to talk about moving Marina not LHO to her house for the birth of the new baby.

LHO invited Ruth to stay for the weekend, and he was an attentive host. Ruth called Mrs. Kloepfer and her two college-age daughters to visit.

One of her daughters had been studying Russian and brought slides of her recent trip to Russia.

LHO politely remarked about each slide. LHO made a much better impression on Ruth that weekend than ever before. Ruth was delighted with LHO's approval.

This made all the difference to Ruth. LHO did most of the packing and all of the car loading on Sunday night, as Marina and Ruth would take the babies on long walks or to wash diapers at the local laundromat.

It was a very well loaded automobile because Ruth already had many things of her own, including a boat on the car-top and they also had a playpen on top.

They left on Monday the 23rd. LHO sadly watched them leave, yet he gave Ruth no money for this trip or ever nor any to Marina for this trip.

Here is part of a letter that Ruth wrote to her mother, dated 30 September ; the second paragraph. Even grateful; he has been out of work since August.

I feel now that Lee wants to keep his family together and will send for them as soon as possible I told them both of my expectation that you would be here February to June.

In other words, Ruth planned for her own mother to come to live with her in Irving starting in February, , and so Marina should be ready to move out by then.

Ruth hoped that LHO would have a job by then. From Tuesday, September 24th through Thursday, October 3rd, Marina, baby June, Ruth and her children enjoyed 10 days of peace and quiet.

They received no word from LHO, by telephone or letter. Marina had no visitors and no social contacts beyond Ruth and Ruth's neighbors.

Ruth quickly handed Marina the phone and Marina asked why he had never called. LHO asked to come to visit for the weekend. Marina asked Ruth and Ruth approved.

Ruth left to buy groceries and expected LHO to arrive by bus around suppertime. Yet when Ruth returned an hour later, LHO was already there.

He explained that he'd hitchhiked. LHO said his day search for work in Houston had failed, and he would now try Dallas.

He said nothing about Mexico City. Warren Commission CE appears to be that same map. The YMCA was too expensive, so he went looking for a room.

He gave no address. Ruth wrote a letter, CE, to her mother dated Monday, October 14th. Ruth said she gave LHO a driving lesson:.

If LHO can just find work that will help so much. Meantime I started giving him driving lessons last Sunday yesterday. If he can drive, this will open up more job possibilities and more locations He spent last weekend and the one before with us here and was a happy addition to our expanded family.

From a poor first impression I have come to like him Ruth had no clue that LHO was keeping a rifle in her garage. She was certain that it was never in the Oswald belongings that Ruth had personally unloaded from New Orleans.

Ruth was stunned when she learned that Marina had known about it. On October 14th, Marina and Ruth shared coffee with the next door neighbors, Mrs.

Roberts and two other mothers, including Linnie Mae Randle. Ruth translated for Marina. Once connected, Ruth told him that she knew a young man, a former Marine named Lee Oswald whose wife was staying in her house, with one child and expecting a baby, and he needed a job.

Truly said that he should apply in person. Marina should be here until she has rested some from childbirth. During Sunday evening, October 20th, Marina began labor, and LHO stayed at Ruth's to care for all the sleeping toddlers while Ruth drove Marina to the hospital in her station wagon around 9pm.

Parkland accepted Marina and sent Ruth home. A few hours later Ruth called the hospital, and they said that Marina had a baby girl.

LHO was asleep, so Ruth decided to tell him in the morning. LHO went to work normally that Monday, but that evening he arrived again in Irving, driven by Frazier.

Ruth encouraged LHO to go to the hospital; Ruth was not admitted. Marina and baby Rachel were now home -- everybody was together again.

Starting mid-afternoon on Friday, November 1st, bad luck arrived. This was nap-time so Ruth started out alone with the FBI. Hosty had spoken last week with her immediate neighbor, Mrs.

Roberts, who confirmed that a Russian lady was living with Ruth. Yes, Ruth said, but not LHO. The FBI assured her that they never contact the employer in routine inquiries.

Ruth translated as Hosty reassured Marina that he was only there to greet her, and not to question her, and that he wanted Marina to rest after having her baby.

Then he left. LHO frowned but he said nothing else about it. Then Hosty asked if Ruth thought Oswald was a mental case, and Ruth said no; even though he was a Marxist, which is illogical, he could still function in society.

Hosty scoffed and left. While doing dishes that night, Ruth told Marina what happened, and Marina raied her voice -- the Oswald address was the Oswald's business!

Ruth still believed that the FBI had easy access to any address they desired, so she thought little of it. The DMV was closed because of the holiday.

LHO returned to his draft. He worked on it all weekend, and he left the draft on the desk through the Sunday evening. On early Monday morning, since the draft was still there, Ruth glanced at it which is now CE LHO was writing fibs on her typewriter!

So, Ruth read the whole thing. Here is the entire document:. I was unable to remain in Mexico City indefinitely because of my Mexican visa restriction which was for 15 days only.

I could not take a chance on applying for an extension unless I used my real name so I returned to the U.

I and Marina Nicholyeva are now living in Dallas, Texas. Of course I and my wife strongly protested these tactics by the notorious FBI.

I had not planned to contact the Mexico City Embassy at all so of course they were unprepared for me.

Had I been able to reach Havana as planned, the Soviet Embassy would have had time to assist me, but of course the stupid Cuban consul was at fault here.

I am glad he has since been replaced by another.

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